The Florida court system is divided into five districts that are made up of 20 Circuit Courts, which and are further broken down into 67 County Courts. Appeals are handled at the District Court, while trial level matters are divided between the big-time Circuit Courts and the small-time County Courts. Significantly, there are no municipal courts in Florida. Check out this handy chart for quick reference.
Jacksonville lay within the Fourth Judicial Circuit of Florida, which covers Duval, Nassau and Clay counties. Fourth Circuit appeals go to the First District Court of Appeal, which is headquartered in Tallahassee. Fortunately for you, the enormous Duval County Courthouse holds every state courtroom in Jacksonville, a true one-stop-shop for all your judicial needs.